I like your presentation very much — an elegant writing/research style.
In my opinion, poverty is orchestrated by the particular economic system of the nation or the influence of other countries on it. Filtration of its populace into “classes or income segments” occurs by requirements/tools imposed or given by the particular society (the type of education, accessibility to technology, transportation, necessities, etc.). Of course, in every instance, the distribution of wealth favors the wealthy or powerful. All economic systems thrive by differentiation as a tool to motivate higher productivity from laborers, but not necessarily as doorways into the upper-income echelons. Waving the carrot in front of people promotes consumerism and a growing economy that leaves most workers living from one paycheck to the next.